Gem cutting is multi-step process, this process also refer to ‘lapidary’ or ‘lapidarist’. Cutting a rough gem (raw of gemstone) into faceted gem is multi phase process.
This is very critical process and demands expertness.
Marking :Rough gem must be marked before process further steps. Marking decides according to natural shape of gemstone.
Cleaving :Cleavage related to term of splitting. In this process, rough gemstone migrates into almost near about finish gem crystal. It split marked into certain fixed directions. Cleavage of gemstone depends on variety of gemstone. It can be perfect, imperfect and difficult. Cleavage can be done more than one direction. Cleavage is result of arrangement of atom.
Sawing :This process needs extreme caution. In this process gemstone raw (rough stone) cut into almost accurate shape (near about finish shape). A rounded blade, made up of steel and copper. It rotates around thousand times per minutes laterally through a gemstone. Gem cutter raw size depends on hardness of gemstone. Slab saw, trim saw, facter’s saw are the main circular saw.
Grinding :This process also called Bruling / rounding. It composed of Diamond infuse/ Silicon carbide wheels. It used for give a proper shape to a rough gem. This known as ‘preform’. In this process a rough gem placed in a chunk. While rotation, a diamond or silicon carbide wheel rotate against chunk. It provides shape to rough gem.
Faceting :This process is usually done on transparent gem. In this process, the stone attach with a dop stick and pushing it against a rotating Facetron. It composed with a motor. Side by side it transfers the stone to facetron.
Brillianteering :This is final process of gem cutting. Final brilliant cut stone is ready after this.